Cystitida (zánět močových cest) - léčba, prevence a nejčastější dotazy

Odborně aktualizováno: 21/2/2022

Cystitida je zánět močových cest, kterým někdy v životě trpí mnoho lidí. Ačkoli jsou nejčastěji postiženy ženy, infekcí se může nakazit kdokoli. Naštěstí můžete sami udělat mnoho pro to, abyste zánětu močového měchýře předešli.

Četla Anne Thestrup Meimbresse

Anne, lékárna Varde
Anne má titul MSc ve farmacii vystudované na University of Southern Denmark a několik let pracovala jako lékárnice v lékárně Varde. Zde radí jak zákazníkům, tak lékařům, jak správně používat léčivé přípravky.

What is urinary tract inflammation?

Zánět močových cest, známý také jako infekce močových cest nebo líbánková choroba se nejčastěji vyskytuje u žen. Ve většině případů je onemocnění způsobeno gastrointestinálními bakteriemi, které se rozšířily do moči. To způsobuje zánět v močovém měchýři, do kterého se bakterie dostávají močovou trubicí.

Bakteriím se daří v moči o tělesné teplotě, a proto se rychle množí, když se dostanou do močového měchýře, a nakonec způsobí infekci sliznice, která je zarudlá a podrážděná. Celý močový měchýř se podráždí a začne se stahovat, i když není plný.

Zánět močového měchýře není sexuální onemocnění, ale zánět močového měchýře můžete dostat v důsledku sexuální aktivity.

Záchvat cystitidy není nebezpečný a u většiny zdravých žen často odezní sám bez léčby. Zánět močových cest však může mít za následek bodavou bolest a v některých případech horečku, a proto může být vhodné navštívit lékaře a nechat se léčit. Lékař vám jako léčbu předepíše antibiotika.

Jaké jsou příznaky zánětu močových cest?

Pokud jste sami prodělali zánět močového měchýře, pravděpodobně již znáte jeho příznaky. Je velmi pravděpodobné, že ano - zánětem močového měchýře nebo močových cest se během života potýká padesát procent žen.

Běžné příznaky zánětu močových cest:

  • Píchání při močení
  • Časté nucení na močení
  • Může být obtížné úplně vyprázdnit močový měchýř
  • Zakalená moč, která může nepříjemně zapáchat
  • Bolest břicha
  • Horečka a celkově špatný pocit
  • Krev v moči

If you have bladder inflammation, you may not have all the symptoms. Some people experience all the symptoms, while others only find that they sting them when urinating.

Typical symptoms of bladder inflammation are the feeling that you have to urinate all the time and that it stings and hurts.

Symptoms to which you should pay special attention

If you need to go to the bathroom more often than usual and you feel pain and tingling, you may have a urinary tract infection. If it is very painful, it is advisable to see a doctor. However, bladder inflammation often resolves on its own.

If you have high fever and lower back pain, you may have a kidney pelvis infection and then it is a good idea to call a doctor.

Who suffers from inflammation of the urinary tract?

Women most often suffer from urinary tract inflammation, but it can also affect men, women and children. They often feel different, and therefore the symptoms are different.

Fifty percent of women will have bladder inflammation at some point in their lives, but this number is significantly lower for men and children. Of all women who have experienced bladder inflammation, 30-44% will have it again - usually within three months.

Why do women have inflammation of the bladder or urinary tract more often than men?

There is a completely natural reason for this. This is simply because the urethra is very short in women (4-5 centimeters) and at the same time the anus and urethra are much closer than in men.

Because men have a much longer urethra than women (14-15 centimeters), bacteria are much less likely to get into the bladder.

Why do people get bladder inflammation?

There can be many reasons why people get bladder inflammation, but in the vast majority of cases, the cause of inflammation of the bladder is bacteria from the digestive tract - usually Escherichia coli.

As already mentioned, there are many different causes of urinary tract inflammation.

Some typical causes of urinary tract inflammation in women:

  • When the bladder does not empty completely when urinating. When urinating, allow yourself plenty of time and empty your bladder as much as possible.
  • The direction you are rubbing. Women can avoid inflammation of the bladder by wiping it from the urethra towards the rectum.
  • Sexual intercourse and anal sex (and poor hygiene after it).
  • Honeymoon cystitis means an infection of the urinary tract after frequent sex.
  • Stones in the urinary tract that support the growth of bacteria.
  • Anatomical conditions, such as outpouching or ectopic urethra, that result in urinary debris in the urethra.
  • Hormonal changes such as menopause, which results in less estrogen, which otherwise maintains the lining of the urethra and vagina.
  • Urethral catheter. When a patient has a urethral catheter, the barrier between the skin and the bladder is disrupted.

It is worth knowing about urinary tract infections in women

Because the urethra is shorter in women than in men, women are more likely to have urinary tract infections. Because the urethra is so short, it is important to prevent bladder inflammation and other infections by careful hygiene.

Thorough urinary tract prevention is prevented by thorough hygiene:

  • Make sure you wash with products specially developed for intimate hygiene. Here you will find products from Australian Bodycare, which are specially developed for proper intimate hygiene for women.
  • Go to urinate after sex - preferably within fifteen minutes after the end of sexual intercourse.
  • Do you feel that you are accumulating a bladder infection? Then drink plenty of water or sugar-free cranberry juice.
  • Go to the toilet whenever you need to, and make sure you empty your bladder as best you can.
  • Wash before sex and change your underwear every day. You can wash yourself daily with Femi Daily from Australian Bodycare, which cleans gently but effectively and maintains the pH where it should be.
  • After visiting the toilet, wipe in the right direction. Wipe away from the urethra to the back.
  • Cleanse your body internally by drinking plenty of water to flush out your bladder and flush out all bacteria.
  • Avoid drafts and sitting in a cold seat. Make sure you have warm clothes on your lower body. It is said that you are more likely to get bladder inflammation if you have a cold bottom and thighs, but this link is not reliably documented.
  • If you have anal sex, you should use a condom, and if you continue to have sex in areas other than the rectum, replace it. This will prevent the transmission of bacteria.

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Does cranberry juice help against urinary tract inflammation?

If you have ever had urinary tract inflammation, you have probably heard home advice that you can treat a urinary tract infection with cranberry juice. In fact, this is sometimes true, but not always.

Cranberry juice contains, among other things, antioxidants, which can help prevent bacteria from settling on the mucous membranes. However, it is very important that you drink cranberry juice without sugar. If you have too much sugar in your urine, it can increase the growth of bacteria in your bladder.

However, cranberry juice is not a miracle cure for bladder inflammation. It only affects about half of the bacteria that can cause bladder inflammation, so cranberry juice doesn't work for everyone.

In addition, cranberry juice is considered a precautionary measure rather than an actual treatment.

Urinary tract infections in men are rare but not impossible.

Although the vast majority of patients with urinary tract infections are women, men can get them.

If men have urinary tract infections, they fall into two categories:

  1. Lower urinary tract infection that affects the bladder and urethra.
  2. Upper urinary tract infection that affects the kidney cavity (pelvis) and kidneys.

In most cases of urinary tract infections in men, their own fecal bacteria spread through the urethra to the bladder.

An uncomplicated urinary tract infection in men is called cystitis and is very similar to cystitis in women.

In contrast, complex urinary tract infections in men are inflammations in which factors inside or outside the urinary system can have longer-term and more severe consequences.

However, urinary tract infections are relatively rare in men and do not affect men of any particular age.

Symptoms of urinary tract infections in men:

  • It stings when urinating
  • You feel the need to urinate more often and the urge to urinate is stronger.
  • Pain over the pubic bone
  • Fever and / or blood in the urine

The treatment is the same as for women and consists of taking antibiotics as prescribed by your doctor.

Causes of inflammation of the bladder in men:

  • Enlarged prostate
  • Incomplete bladder emptying
  • Long intervals between bladder emptying
  • Drinking too little fluid
  • Prostate inflammation
  • Kidney stones or bladder stones
  • Nerve damage in the lower urinary tract
  • Prostate, kidney or bladder tumors
  • Urinary tract malformations
  • Reflux, where urine returns from the bladder back to the ureters.
  • Urethral narrowing
  • Urinary catheter
  • Fistula
  • Bladder outlet
  • Diseases or other factors that weaken the immune system

Inflammation of the bladder in children

Urinary tract infection (cystitis) in children means infection of the urethra, bladder and, in some cases, the ureters and kidneys. The symptoms of cystitis vary greatly depending on the age of the child.

In young children, symptoms often include fever, irritability, failure to thrive, vomiting and / or weight loss.

While symptoms in older children will be pain when urinating, frequent urination, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and / or fever.

Diagnosing symptoms in children can be difficult

Diagnosing a child with bladder inflammation on the basis of symptoms alone can be difficult. It will usually be necessary to take a urine sample and in some cases blood.

Diagnosis and treatment will vary depending on whether it is an upper or lower urinary tract infection. In case of inflammation of the renal pelvis, an ultrasound examination or X-ray or an isotope examination will be performed, which is performed during urination.

This is to verify that the infection is not caused by congenital malformations that may make the baby more susceptible to urinary tract infections.

Inflammation of the bladder during pregnancy is very common

Inflammation of the bladder or urinary tract infection during pregnancy is very common. For example, urinary tract infections have more pregnant women than non-pregnant women.

For this reason, all pregnant women are tested for the presence of bacteria in their urine, even if they have no symptoms.

The symptoms and treatment of urinary tract infections in pregnant women are largely the same as in non-pregnant women. If you are pregnant, you should pay special attention to fever or side pain, which are symptoms of bladder inflammation.

If you are pregnant and increasingly experience false labor, it may be a sign that you have bladder inflammation or pelvic inflammation, which also causes fever and pain in the side.

Prevention and treatment of urinary tract inflammation

Your doctor will treat urinary tract infection with antibiotics if it is certain that your symptoms are caused by bacteria.

In many cases, however, inflammation of the urinary tract will go away on its own if you follow good hygiene and make sure you drink enough fluids.

We recommend using Intim Wash, Femigel and Femi Daily from Australian Bodycare to maintain good and healthy hygiene in the intimate area. Good hygiene is an effective prevention of conditions such as inflammation of the bladder.

In addition, you can supplement plenty of fluids and good hygiene with over-the-counter pain medications such as paracetamol or ibuprofen. However, it is not as effective as antibiotics, so if the symptoms do not go away, it is important that you see a doctor.

What can I do alone?

If you have urinary tract inflammation, you should drink plenty of fluids (sugar-free), take over-the-counter pain medications, and take good intimate hygiene.

Antibiotic treatment

If drinking plenty of fluids doesn't help, you may need antibiotic treatment.

You must call your doctor first. When ordering, you will most likely need to bring a urine sample or return it to the doctor's office. Your doctor will then analyze the levels of white blood cells, blood or nitrite in your urine and can tell you immediately if you have urinary tract inflammation.

However, your doctor will often send urine for microbiological analysis to help you choose the right type of antibiotic.

If you have urinary tract inflammation, your doctor will either give you antibiotics or start treatment with sulphonamides.

FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions

Why do people get urinary tract inflammation?

In women, inflammation of the urinary tract is usually caused by bacteria (often gastrointestinal bacteria) that enter the bladder through the urethra.

This may be due to sexual intercourse, anal sex, toilet wipes, hormonal changes (menopause) or incomplete bladder emptying.

How does urinary tract inflammation feel?

If you have bladder inflammation, you get burned when urinating and the need to go to the toilet is stronger and more common. At the same time, you feel like you have trouble emptying your bladder.

Some people also have abdominal pain and fever and are not feeling well.

What helps fight urinary tract inflammation?

You can treat bladder inflammation yourself by following good hygiene, drinking plenty of fluids (sugar-free) and taking over-the-counter pain medications such as paracetamol or ibuprofen.

If the inflammation of the urinary tract does not resolve itself, it should be treated with antibiotics, which your doctor will prescribe after diagnosis.

How long does urinary tract inflammation last?

Zánět močových cest zpravidla odezní po několika dnech. Vždy je však dobré obrátit se na svého lékaře, který vám řekne, zda je třeba užívat antibiotika, nebo ne.

Pokud příznaky přetrvávají déle než několik dní, může to znamenat, že se infekce rozšířila do ledvin a způsobila pyelitidu. To je však velmi vzácné.

Jak se mohu vyhnout zánětu močových cest?

V první řadě se zánětu močových cest můžete vyhnout správnou hygienou.

Myjte se kvalitními prostředky intimní hygieny, po pohlavním styku se vymočte, po návštěvě toalety se utřete směrem od pochvy ke konečníku; při análním sexu používejte kondom (a pokud budete pokračovat v sexu na jiných místech, sundejte si ho); na toaletě nespěchejte, aby se váš močový měchýř zcela vyprázdnil.

Můžete zánět močových cest zapít?

Někdy, ale ne vždy. V mnoha případech můžete zánět močového měchýře zapít pitím velkého množství tekutin. Může to fungovat, protože tekutiny pomáhají vyplavovat bakterie z močového měchýře.

V některých případech také pomáhá, když pijete brusinkový džus (bez cukru), ale ten není účinný proti všem typům bakterií. Vždy je však dobré poradit se s lékařem, pokud si myslíte, že máte zánět močového měchýře.

Je zánět močových cest infekční?

Zánět močového měchýře není nakažlivý.

Místo toho je cystitida způsobena bakteriemi ze střeva nebo právě kolem ústí močové trubice, takže vlastně není infekční. To znamená, že se cystitidou nemůžete nakazit při sexu s partnerem, který ji má.

Sada pro intimní hygienu

3 přípravky pro intimní péči proti suchosti, zápachu, svědění nebo jiným intimním potížím

799,00 Kč

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